Climate Change Adaptation Practices and Rice Farmers’ Level of Living in North-West, Nigeria
AbstractThe study examined the effect of climate change adaptation practices on rice farmers’ level of living in North-West, Nigeria. It targeted Sokoto, Kebbi and Zamfara States in the North-West, Nigeria that are among the major rice producing States in the country. A multistage sampling procedure was used to obtain a sample of 522 farmers for the study. The data were obtained with the aid of structured interview schedule were analysed using both descriptive (frequency counts, percentages, ranges and means) and inferential (Chi-square) statistics. Findings of the study reveal that the majority (96%) of the respondents had their income from rice production, within the N50,000.00 to N499,999.00 (143 to 1,429 USD) range. The mean rice income was N308,742.00 (882 USD). The majority (84.48%) and (77.40%) of the respondents used improved rice varieties and intercropping as climate change adaptation practices, respectively. Other climate change adaptation practices used by the rice farmers included moderate use of fertilizers (93.10%) and other chemicals (89.85%), as well as use of organic manure (99.43%). The farmers also adjusted the planting calendar through early planting (92.34%) and early harvesting (93.10%). Similarly, the majority (89.85%) of the respondents made mounds and ridges across slopes while 96.17% and 89.08% used rivers/streams and dug wells for irrigation. About 51% of the rice farmers spent N5,000.00 - N370,999.00 of their rice income on vehicles. 54% spent N8,000.00 - N92,299.00 of their rice income on electronics and only about 14% spent N4,000.00 - N102,999.00 of their rice income on land and housing. There was a significant (X2 = 258.6325; p < 0.00) relationship between farmers’ use of climate change adaptation practices and their level of living. The study concluded that rice farmers’ use of climate change adaptation practices could lead to improvement in their rice income and level of living.
Keywords: Climate change, Adaptation practices, Rice farmers, Level of living
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