Plagiarism is unacknowledged copying or an attempt to misattribute original authorship, whether of ideas, text or results. Plagiarism can include, theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work. Plagiarism can be said to have clearly occurred when large chunks of text have been cut-and-pasted without appropriate and unambiguous attribution. Such manuscripts would not be considered for publication in a Journal of Agricultural Extension. Apart from wholesale verbatim reuse of text, due care must be taken to ensure appropriate attribution and citation when paraphrasing and summarising the work of others. Reuse of parts of text from an author's previous research publication is a form of self-plagiarism so, due caution must be exercised. When reusing text, whether from the author's own publication or that of others, appropriate attribution and citation is necessary to avoid creating a misleading perception of unique contribution for the reader.
Duplicate (or redundant) publication occurs when an author reuses substantial parts of their own published work without providing the appropriate references. This can range from publishing an identical paper in multiple journals, to only adding a small amount of new data to a previously published paper.
JAE editors assess all such cases on their individual merits through the review process. When plagiarism becomes evident post-publication, JAE may correct, withdraw the original publication, or place the information on the community platform, depending on the degree of plagiarism, context within the published article and its impact on the overall integrity of the published study.