Maize Farmers’ Knowledge and Management of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frupigerda) in Southwest Nigeria


  • Olusegun Ojumoola University of Ilorin
  • Adebayo Omoloye University of Ibadan
  • Kehinde Thomas University of Ibadan


This study investigated maize farmers’ knowledge, control methods, and perception of the invasive and highly destructive insect pest – fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in southwest Nigeria. A four-stage sampling procedure was employed in selecting 195 maize farmers in the study area. Data were obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire. Data analysis was done using percentages, means, standard deviations, and chi-square test. The majority of respondents (88.7%) observed fall armyworm attack within two months after sowing but only 30.8% reported total damage to maize plants by the pest. Most of the respondents (75.9%) could describe the destructive larval stage of fall armyworm. Also, 58.5% of respondents exclusively applied synthetic insecticides for fall armyworm control. The most common insecticides used by respondents were organophosphates (37.2%), pyrethroids (29.0%) and avermectins (18.2%). Majority of the maize farmers (82.4 %) perceived fall armyworm damage as a serious and worrisome problem. Also, strong and significant association (?2 = 41.3, P < 0.001) was found between farmers’ agroecological zones and the severity of fall armyworm damage reported. Information provide in the study could guide appropriate decision-making for fall armyworm management interventions in southwest Nigeria.

Author Biographies

Adebayo Omoloye , University of Ibadan

Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology 

Kehinde Thomas, University of Ibadan

Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development 


Ayanlade, A., Oluwatimileyin, I. A., Oladimeji, A. A., Atai, G. & Agbalajobi, D. T. (2020). Climate Change Adaptation Options in Farming Communities of Selected Nigerian Ecological Zones. In W. L. Filho (eds.), African Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation. Springer.

Baudron, F., Mainassara Abdou Zaman-Allah, M. A., Chaipa, I., Chari, N. & Chinwada, P. (2019). Understanding the factors influencing fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith damage in African smallholder maize fields and quantifying its impact on yield. A case study in Eastern Zimbabwe. Crop Protection, 120, 141–150. DOI:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO (2018). Integrated management of the fall armyworm on maize: a guide for farmer field schools in Africa. Rome, Italy: FAO. Retrieved from

Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database, FAOSTAT. (2018). Crops: production. [accessed July27, 2020].

IBM SPSS. (2019). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 26.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, (2020). ICIPE launches mass release of indigenous natural enemies to control fall armyworm. Retrieved from 19.02.2021.

Kansiime, K. M., Mugambi, I., Rwomushana, I., Nunda, W., Lamontagne-Godwin, J., Rware, H., Phiri, N. A., Chipabika, G., Ndlovu, M. & Day, R. (2019). Farmer perception of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiderda J.E. Smith) and farm-level management practices in Zambia. Pest Management Science. 75(10), 2840 – 2850. DOI:

Kumela, T., Simiyu, J., Sisay, B., Likhayo, P., Mendesil, E., Gohole, L. & Tefera, T. (2018). Farmers' knowledge, perceptions, and management practices of the new invasive pest, fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in Ethiopia and Kenya. International Journal of Pest Management, 65(1), 1 – 9. DOI:

Odeyemi, O. O., Lawal, B. O., Owolade, O. F., Olasoji, J.O., Egbetokun, O. A., Oloyede- Kamiyo, Q. O., Omodele, T. and Anjorin, F. B. (2020). Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): threat to maize production in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, 51(1), 101 – 108. DOI:

Ojumoola, O. A., Omoloye, A. A. and Umeh, V. C. (2022). Seasonal differences in fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), abundance and plant injury on selected maize varieties in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. International Journal of Pest Management, DOI:




How to Cite

Ojumoola, O., Omoloye , A. ., & Thomas, K. . (2022). Maize Farmers’ Knowledge and Management of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frupigerda) in Southwest Nigeria . Journal of Agricultural Extension, 26(4). Retrieved from



General Extension and Teaching Methods